The Muhammadyah, Indonesia 1912
Founded by Ahmad Dahlan, from Yogyakarta, returned from Haj, global movement of religious reform emerged from Saudi Arabia. Concern over enervated state of Islam in Indonesia, « set all that straight through modern, Western-influenced education ». Schools established in Java.
Prompts the other Islamic currents in Java, traditionalist orthodoxy of village seminaries, to found their own group, the Nahdlatul Ulama, as a counterpoint to all this internationalist reform.
T Hannigan p. 167.