Indonesia 1950s, Darul Islam
West Java, Aceh and Douth Sulawesi, low-level rebellions the « staunch Muslims of the Darul Islam movement » (Hannigan 218). Emerged in the 1940s, at the height of the revolution, amongst orthodox Muslims who wanted to turn Indonesia into an Islamic state, dismayed by the sectarisme of the mainstream nationalists.
While strands of Muslim, nationalism and socialism (including communism) common components of the revolutionary movement, even in its secular overall logic, and frequent fluid overlaps between the three.
Question is: how did Islam form as a political option or project in the first place. An internationalist source is easily identifiable, but more, how?
By 1965, civil war feared between communists (PKI) and Muslim youth organisations, in Java and Aceh in Sumatra.